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Standards Publications Explained.
14/03/2017

Know Your Standards

by J. M. Woodgate B.Sc.(Eng.) C.Eng.  MIET SMIEEE FAES  HonFInstSCE MIOA

Saga

There are several  different types of 'standards publication', so a table to summarize would be useful. It is based on the way IEC identifies types, because that is the most 'structured' way. Rather than the cumbersome 'standards publication'. it is convenient to use 'publication' to mean any of these except Guide, and use 'Standard' when we mean only a fully normative publication.

Type of publication

Abbreviation

Description

Standard

none

'Normative' (i.e. prescriptive) document; uses 'shall' for provisions, 'should' for recommendations and 'may' for permissions (and preferably not for probability)

Technical Report

TR

Review, survey or generally descriptive document. Not allowed to use 'shall', 'may' or 'should'.

Technical Specification

TS

A possible future standard or a normative document which has strong support but no consensus for publication as a standard; uses 'shall', 'may' and 'should'

Publicly-available Specification

PAS

Normative document obtained from another body that may become an IEC standard after experience of its use has been gained; uses 'shall', 'may' and 'should'

Guide

none

One of a separate series of documents, addressed to standards committees rather than standards users. Some Guides are normative, or have parts that are normative.

Test Report Form

TRF

Guess? These official forms are not mandatory, but impress clients. They can be quite costly

 

There is another classification system that helps to understand the relationships between standards that deal with the same product type.

Class

Description

Product standard

Deals with the characteristics of the product as they affect its application. Can include methods of measurement or performance requirements, or both (then it must be a Standard)

Methods of measurement Standard

Deals only (or almost only) with methods of measurement

Performance Standard

Deals with performance from the user's point of view

'Regulatory' performance Standard

EMC Standard, Safety Standard or Human Exposure to EM energy Standard.

 

 

 

Even that is not the end of the story, because 'regulatory' standards have a classification of their own, but implemented differently in safety and EMC standards!

Type

Description of Safety Standard

Description of EMC Standard

Generic

Gives requirements that are applicable to products that do not have an applicable product family or product standard and set a benchmark for the requirements specified in those standards

Usually Part 1 of a multi-part standard; includes methods of measurement

Gives requirements that are applicable to products that do not have an applicable product family or product standard and sets a benchmark for the corresponding requirements specified in those standards

A Standard in the IEC 61000-6 series

Basic

Rare; an example is IEC 60990 on measurement of touch current. Often about methods of measurement.

Gives methods of measurement that are applicable to most product families; maybe suggests numerical requirements based on those methods

Standards in the IEC 61000-4 series and the CISPR 16 series

Product Family

Deals with a range of products using closely similar technology; usually a Part other than Part 1, or a section of Part 2, of a multi-part standard. May include additional methods of measurement

Deals with a range of products using broadly similar technology (maybe very broad, e.g. IEC 61000-3-2 and -3 cover almost all mains-powered products)

Standards in the IEC 61000-3 series and CISPR NN-n standards, except the CISPR 16 series, also some standards produced by product committees.

Product

Deals with a closely-defined product; usually a section of Part 2 of a multi-part standard

Some standards produced by product committees. Some cover immunity only.

Support

A TR or TS that gives guidance and recommendations where a Standard does not exist, or gives supporting explanations of a standard (e.g. IEC/EN TR 62368-2)

A TR or TS that gives guidance and recommendations where a Standard does not exist.

 

Generic safety Standards

There are too many of these to list, but notable ones include IEC 62368-1, IEC 60065 (consumer electronics), IEC 60204-1 (machinery), IEC 60335-1 (household appliances), IEC 60601-1 (medical), IEC 60950-1 (ITE and office machines) and IEC 61010-1 (measuring instruments, industrial process control and laboratory equipment).

The EN versions of all of these have varying degrees of difference from the IEC version. Since even a small difference may affect YOUR product profoundly, it is most unwise to consult the IEC version when the EN applies, or vice versa.

NOTE IEC/EN 60065 and IEC/EN 60950-1 will be superseded by IEC 62368-1. At present, this is planned for year 2020. But it is practically essential to  take IEC/EN 62368-1 into account now, because it is very different from its predecessors.

 

 

Generic EMC standards

Reference

Property

EMC environment

IEC 61000-6-1

Immunity

Residential, commercial and light industry

IEC 61000-6-2

Immunity

(Heavy) Industrial

IEC 61000-6-3

Emission

Residential, commercial and light industry

IEC 61000-6-4

Emission

(Heavy) Industrial

IEC TS 61000-6-5

Immunity

Power station and sub-station

IEC 61000-6-7

Immunity

Safety-related industrial systems

 

Basic safety Standards

There are few of these with wide application, except IEC 60990, already mentioned above.

Note  The terms 'basic safety Standard' and 'basic safety publication' are not of the same meaning.

Basic EMC Standards

Reference

Description

IEC 61000-4-1

Overview of the IEC 61000-4 series

IEC 61000-4-2

Immunity to electrostatic discharge (ESD)

IEC 61000-4-3

Immunity to radiated radio-frequency electromagnetic fields

IEC 61000-4-4

Immunity to fast transients or bursts

IEC 61000-4-5

Immunity to surges

IEC 61000-4-6

Immunity to conducted disturbances induced by radio-frequency fields

IEC 61000-4-7

Measurement of harmonics and interharmonics of the power supply

IEC 61000-4-8

Immunity to power frequency magnetic field

IEC 61000-4-9

Immunity to pulse magnetic field

IEC 61000-4-10

Immunity to damped oscillatory magnetic field

IEC 61000-4-11

Immunity to voltage dips, short interruptions and voltage variations

IEC 61000-4-12

Immunity to ring-wave

IEC 61000-4-13

Immunity of the AC power port to harmonics, interharmonics and low-frequency mains signalling

IEC 61000-4-14

Immunity to voltage fluctuations

IEC 61000-4-15

Flickermeter functional and design specifications

IEC 61000-4-16

Immunity to conducted common-mode disturbances, 0 Hz to 150 kHz

IEC 61000-4-17

Immunity to ripple on DC input power port

IEC 61000-4-18

Immunity to damped oscillatory wave

IEC 61000-4-19

Immunity to conducted differential-mode disturbances and signals 2 kHz to 150 kHz at AC power ports

IEC 61000-4-20

Emission and immunity testing in transverse electromagnetic (TEM) waveguides

IEC 61000-4-21

Reverberation chamber test methods

IEC 61000-4-22

Radiated emissions and immunity measurements in fully-anechoic rooms (FARs)

IEC 61000-4-23

Test methods for protective devices for high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) and other radiated disturbances

IEC 61000-4-24

Test methods for protective devices for HEMP conducted disturbance

IEC 61000-4-25

Immunity test methods for HEMP for equipment and systems

IEC 61000-4-26

Not issued

IEC 61000-4-27

Immunity to unbalance [of 3-phase power supplies] for equipment with input current not exceeding 16 A per phase

IEC 61000-4-28

Immunity to variation of power frequency for equipment with input current not exceeding 16 A per phase

IEC 61000-4-29

Immunity of DC power ports to voltage dips, short interruptions and voltage variations

IEC 61000-4-30

Measurement of power quality

IEC 61000-4-31

Immunity to broadband conducted disturbances at AC power ports

IEC TR 61000-4-32

High altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) simulator compendium

IEC 61000-4-33

Measurement methods for high-power transient parameters

IEC 61000-4-34

Immunity of equipment with input current more than 16 A per phase to voltage dips, short interruptions and voltage variations

IEC 61000-4-35

High-power electromagnetic (HPEM) simulator compendium

IEC 61000-4-36

Intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) immunity test methods for equipment and systems

IEC TR 61000-4-37

Calibration and verification protocol for harmonic emission compliance test systems

IEC 61000-4-38

Test, verification and calibration protocol for voltage fluctuation and flicker compliance test systems

IEC 61000-4-39

Immunity to radiated fields in close proximity (not yet published, in March 2017)

IEC 61000-4-40

Digital methods for measuring power quantities of modulated or distorted signals (not yet published, in March 2017)

 

The above descriptions are not necessarily the titles of the standards, some of which murder the English language. The French titles are, of course, much more grammatical.  The 'not issued' standard exists as a title in an IEC TC77 internal master list but may never be developed and published. Further offerings, beyond Section 40, are to be expected.

Installation and mitigation guidelines

There is a growing band of these. This 61000-5 series was envisaged as non-normative, but that appears to be not true for some Sections. Some of them contain wording which is now prohibited in IEC standards.

Reference

Description

IEC TR 61000-5-1

General considerations (Basic EMC publication)

IEC TR 61000-5-2

Earthing and cabling

IEC TR 61000-5-3

HEMP protection concepts

IEC TS 61000-5-4

Specifications for protective devices against HEMP radiated disturbance (Basic EMC publication)

IEC 61000-5-5

Specifications for protective devices against HEMP conducted disturbance (Basic EMC publication)

IEC 61000-5-6

Mitigation of external electromagnetic (EM) influences

IEC 61000-5-7

Degrees of protection of EM enclosures (EM code)

IEC 61000-5-8

HEMP protection methods for the distributed infrastructure

IEC 61000-5-9

System-level susceptibility assessments for HEMP and HPEM

IEC TS 61000-5-10

Guide to the application of HEMP and IEMI specifications (not yet published, in March 2017)